compiler

by MauriceGit

MauriceGit / compiler

Compiler for a small language into x86-64 Assembly

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Compiler

This project is a small compiler, that compiles my own little language into X86-64 Assembly. It then uses

yasm
and
ld
to assemble and link into a Linux X86-64 executable.

But why?

I've always wanted to write a compiler myself! But just never got around to do it. So the current Coronavirus quarantine situation finally gives me enough time to tackle it myself.

And I was really impressed by people, that wrote solutions for last years adventofcode.com in their own language. So that is something I'd like to achieve :)

So no, no real reason other than - I like to work on challenging problems and found compilers intriguing.

How to run

  • go build
  • ./compiler 
  • ./executable

The compiler will always create an executable called

executable
. Additionally, it will create a file
source.asm
that contains the generated (not optimized) assembly.

Dependencies

Everything is written from scratch, there are no code dependencies. But to assemble and link the program into an executable, you need: -

yasm
-
ld

The resulting Assembly also has no external dependencies (No C std lib, printing is implemented in Assembly directly).

Language influences

  • Go
  • C
  • Python
  • Lua

Features

  • Strong and static type system
  • Multiple return values from functions
  • Automatic packing/unpacking of multiple arguments and/or function returns
  • Function overloading
  • Function inlining (only for system functions right now)
  • Dynamic Arrays with an internal capacity, so not every
    append
    needs a new memory allocation
  • Int and Float types are always 64bit
  • Very Python-like array creation
  • Switch expressions match either values or general boolean expressions
  • Range-based Loops with index and element
  • Structs

Examples

See the

compiler_test.go
file for a lot more working examples :)

Print

// There are overloaded functions: print, println that work on floats and integers
println(5)
println(6.543)

Assignment

// Types are derived from the expressions!
a = 4
b = 5.6
c = true

Functions

fun abc(i int, j float) int, float, int {
    return i, j, 100
}
// Can be overloaded
fun abc(i int, j int) int, float, int {
    return i, 5.5, j
}
// ...
a, b, c = abc(5, 6.5)

Lists

// List of integers. Type derived from the expressions
list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
// Empty list of integers with length 10. Type explicitely set
list2 = [](int, 10)
// Lists can naturally contain other lists
list3 = [list, list2]
// There are build-in functions, to get the length and capacity
println(len(list3))
println(cap(list3))

// You have to free them yourself free(list)

// And some convenience functions to clear/reset the list without deallocating the memory: // reset only resets the length, while clear overwrites the memory with 0s

reset(list) clear(list)

// Build-in append/extend function, similar to the one in Go // Careful ! append/extend works on the first argument. Depending on the available capacity, it will // extend list or free list and create a completely new memory block, copy list and list2 over and return // the new pointer!

list = append(list, 6) list = extend(list, list2)

// Lists in functions/structs fun abc(a []int) { // ... }

Loops

list = [1,2,3,4,5]

for i = 0; i < len(list); i++ { // ... }

for i,e : list { // i is the current index // e is the actual element: list[i] }

Switch

switch 4 {
case 1:
    println(1)
case 2, 3, 6:
    println(4)
case 5:
    println(5)
default:
    println(999)
}

switch { case 2 > 3: println(1) case 2 == 3: println(4) default: println(888) }

Structs

struct B {
    i int
    j int
}
struct A {
    i int
    j B
}

// Structs are created by calling a function with the same name and an exact match of parameters // that match the expected types of the struct. // Internally, this is just syntax, not a function. So there is no overhead! a = A(1, B(3, 4)) a.j.j = 100 println(a.i) println(a.j.j)

Type conversions

// Build-in (inline) functions: int(), float()
println(int(5.5))
println(float(5))

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