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About the developer

JulianHayward
284 Stars 78 Forks MIT License 269 Commits 3 Opened issues

Description

AzGovViz (Azure Governance Visualizer) is a PowerShell script that captures Azure Governance related information such as Azure Policy, RBAC (a lot more) by polling Azure ARM and Microsoft Graph APIs. From the collected data AzGovViz provides visibility on your HierarchyMap, creates a TenantSummary, creates DefinitionInsights and builds granular ScopeInsights on Management Groups and Subscriptions.

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AzGovViz - Azure Governance Visualizer

Do you want to get granular insights on your technical Azure Governance implementation? - document it in CSV, HTML, Markdown and JSON?
AzGovViz is a PowerShell based script that iterates your Azure Tenant´s Management Group hierarchy down to Subscription level. It captures most relevant Azure governance capabilities such as Azure Policy, RBAC and Blueprints and a lot more. From the collected data AzGovViz provides visibility on your HierarchyMap, creates a TenantSummary, creates DefinitionInsights and builds granular ScopeInsights on Management Groups and Subscriptions. The technical requirements as well as the required permissions are minimal.

You can run the script either for your Tenant Root Group or any other Management Group.

Mission

"Governance can be a complex thing.."

Challenges:

  • Holistic overview on governance implementation
  • Connecting the dots

AzGovViz is intended to help you to get a holistic overview on your technical Azure Governance implementation by connecting the dots

Microsoft Cloud Adoption Framework (CAF)

Listed as tool for the Govern discipline in the Microsoft Cloud Adoption Framework!
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/cloud-adoption-framework/reference/tools-templates#govern

Included in the Microsoft Cloud Adoption Framework´s Strategy-Plan-Ready-Gov Azure DevOps Demo Generator template.

Content

Release history

Pre-Release v6

Version 6 has been pre-released!
Branch: v6major20211011_1

  • Removed usage of Azure PowerShell cmdlet 'Get-AzRoleAssignment' / preparing for upcoming deprecation of 'Azure Active Directory Graph' API (announcement)
  • Management Group diagnostic setting - reflect inheritance of diagnostic settings from upper Management Group scopes
  • Removed TenantSummary RBAC Classic Role assignments
  • Improved AzAPICall error handling and output
  • Azure DevOps pipeline (yml) updated prerequisites to include Repository 'contribute' permission check
  • Performance optimization
  • Bugfixes

Release history

Demo

Demo

Demo (v5major20210818_2)
Enterprise-Scale (WingTip) implementation

More demo output

Media

Slideset

Short presentation on AzGovViz Download

Features

  • Hierarchy of Management Groups
    • Builds a visual hierarchy of your Management Group setup including counts on linked Subscriptions, Policy assignments, scoped Policy/Set definitions and Role assignments per Management Group
  • Azure Policy
    • Custom Policy definitions
    • Scope information
    • Policy effect
    • If Policy effect is DeployIfNotExists (DINE) will show the specified RBAC Role
    • List of assignments
    • Usage in custom PolicySet definitions
    • System metadata 'createdOn, createdBy, updatedOn, updatedBy' ('createdBy', 'updatedBy' identity is fully resolved)
    • Orphaned custom Policy definitions
    • List of custom Policy definitions that matches the following criteria:
      • Policy definition is not used in any custom PolicySet definition
      • No Policy assignment exists for the Policy definition
    • Custom PolicySet definitions
    • Scope information
    • List unique assignments
    • List of Policy definitions used
    • Orphaned custom PolicySet definitions
    • Criteria: no Policy assignment exists for the PolicySet definition
    • Custom PolicySet definitions using deprecated built-in Policy definitions
    • Policy assignments of deprecated built-in Policy definition
    • Policy Exemptions
    • Lists all Exemptions (scopes: Management Groups, Subscriptions, ResourceGroups, Resources)
    • Enrich information on Exemption scope
    • Summary on expired Exemptions
    • Policy assignments throughout the entirety of scopes (Management Groups, Subscriptions and Resource Groups)
    • Core information on Policy assignments
      • NonCompliance Message on Policy assignment for a PolicySet will only show the default non-compliance message
    • Advanced/enriched information on Policy assignments
      • Policy assignment scope (at scope/inheritance)
      • Indicates if scope is excluded from Policy assignment
      • Indicates if Exemption applies for scope
      • Policy/Resource Compliance (Policy: NonCompliant, Compliant; Resource: NonCompliant, Compliant, Conflicting)
      • Related RBAC Role assignments (if Policy effect is DeployIfNotExists (DINE))
      • System metadata 'createdOn, createdBy, updatedOn, updatedBy' ('createdBy', 'updatedBy' identity is fully resolved)
      • Parameters used
  • Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)
    • Custom Role definitions
    • List assignable scopes
    • System metadata 'createdOn, createdBy, updatedOn, updatedBy' ('createdBy', 'updatedBy' identity is fully resolved)
    • Orphaned custom Role definitions
    • List of custom Role definitions that matches the following criteria:
      • Role definition is not used in any Role assignment
      • Role is not used in a Policy definition´s rule (roleDefinitionIds)
    • Orphaned Role assignments
    • List of Role assignments that matches the following criteria:
      • Role definition was deleted although and assignment existed
      • Role assignmet's target identity (User, Group, ServicePrincipal) was deleted
    • Role assignments throughout the entirety of scopes (Management Groups, Subscriptions, Resource Groups and Resources)
    • Core information on Role assignments
    • Advanced information on Role assignments
      • Role assignment scope (at scope / inheritance)
      • For Role Assignments on Groups the AAD Group members are fully resolved. With this capability AzGovViz can ultimately provide holistic insights on permissions granted
      • For Role Assignments on Groups the AAD Group members count (transitive) will be reported
      • For identity-type == 'ServicePrincipal' the type (Application/ManagedIdentity) will be reported
      • For identity-type == 'User' the userType (Member/Guest) will be reported
      • Related Policy assignments (Policy assignment of a Policy definition that uses the DeployIfNotExists (DINE) effect)
      • System metadata 'createdOn, createdBy' ('createdBy' identity is fully resolved)
      • Determine if the Role assignment is 'standing' or PIM managed
    • Role assignments ClassicAdministrators
    • Security & Best practice analysis
    • Existence of custom Role definition that reflect 'Owner' permissions
    • Role assignments for 'Owner' permissions on identity-type == 'ServicePrincipal'
    • Role assignments for 'Owner' permissions on identity-type != 'Group'
    • Role assignments for 'User Access Administrator' permissions on identity-type != 'Group'
    • High priviledge Role assignments for 'Guest Users' (Owner & User Access Administrator)
  • Blueprints
    • Blueprint scopes and assignments
    • Orphaned Blueprints
  • Management Groups
    • Management Group count, level/depth, MG children, Sub children
    • Hierarchy Settings | Default Management Group Id
    • Hierarchy Settings | Require authorization for Management Group creation
  • Subscriptions, Resources
    • Subscription insights
    • QuotaId, State, Tags, Azure Security Center Secure Score, Cost, Management Group path
    • Tag Name usage
    • Insights on usage of Tag Names on Subscriptions, ResourceGroups and Resources
    • Resources
    • Resource Types
      • ResourceType count per location
      • Resource Provider
      • Resource Provider state aggregation throughout all Subscriptions
      • Explicit Resource Provider state per Subscription
      • Resource Locks
      • Aggregated insights for Lock and respective Lock-type usage on Subscriptions, ResourceGroups and Resources
  • Diagnostics
    • Management Groups Diagnostic settings report
    • Management Group, Diagnostic setting name, target type (LA, SA, EH), target Id, Log Category status
    • Subscriptions Diagnostic settings report
    • Subscription, Diagnostic setting name, target type (LA, SA, EH), target Id, Log Category status
    • Resources Diagnostic capabilty report (1st party Resource types only)
    • ResourceType capability for Resource Diagnostics including
      • ResourceType count and information if capable for logs including list of available og categories
      • ResourceType count and information if capable for metrics
    • Lifecyle recommendations for existing Azure Policy definitions that configure Resource diagnostics of type=Log
    • Check if Policy definitions hold the latest set of applicable log categories
    • Recommendation to create Policy definition for ResourceType if supported
    • Lists all PolicyDefinitions that deploy Resource diagnostics of type=log, lists Policy assignments and PolicySet assignments if the Policy defintion is used in a PolicySet definition
  • Limits
    • Tenant approaching ARM limits:
    • Custom Role definitions
    • PolicySet definitions
    • Management Groups approaching ARM limits:
    • Policy assignment limit
    • Policy / PolicySet definition scope limit
    • Role assignment limit
    • Subscriptions approaching ARM limits:
    • ResourceGroup limit
    • Subscription Tags limit
    • Policy assignment limit
    • Policy / PolicySet definition scope limit
    • Role assignment limit
  • Azure Active Directory (AAD)
    • Insights on those Service Principals where a Role assignment exists (scopes: Management Group, Subscription, ResourceGroup, Resource):
    • Type=ManagedIdentity
      • Core information on the Service Principal such as related Ids and use case information
    • Type=Application
      • Secrets and Certificates expiry information & warning
      • Report on external Service Principals
  • Consumption
    • Aggregated consumption insights throughout the entirety of scopes (Management Groups, Subscriptions)
  • Change tracking
    • Policy
    • Created/Updated Policy and PolicySet definitions (system metadata 'createdOn, createdBy, updatedOn, updatedBy')
    • Created/Updated Policy assignments (system metadata 'createdOn, createdBy, updatedOn, updatedBy')
    • RBAC
    • Created/Updated Role definitions (system metadata 'createdOn, createdBy, updatedOn, updatedBy')
    • Created Role assignments (system metadata 'createdOn, createdBy)
    • Resources
    • Aggregated insights on Created/Changed Resources

Screenshots

HTML file

HierarchyMap
alt text
TenantSummary
alt text
DefinitionInsights
alt text ScopeInsights
alt text
*IDs from screenshot are randomized

markdown in Azure DevOps Wiki as Code

alt text *IDs from screenshot are randomized

Note: there is some fixing ongoing at the mermaid project to optimize the graphical experience:
https://github.com/mermaid-js/mermaid/issues/1177

Outputs

  • CSV file
  • HTML file
    • the HTML file uses Java Script and CSS files which are hosted on various CDNs (Content Delivery Network). For details review the BuildHTML region in the PowerShell script file.
    • Browsers tested: Edge, new Edge and Chrome
  • MD (Markdown) file
    • for use with Azure DevOps Wiki leveraging the Mermaid plugin
  • JSON folder (demo-output) containing
    • all Policy and Role assignments (Scopes: Tenant, Management Groups and Subscriptions)
    • all BuiltIn and Custom Policy/Set definitions (Scopes: Management Groups and Subscriptions)
    • all BuiltIn and Custom Role definitions
    • JSON file of ManagementGroup Hierarchy including all Custom Policy/Set and RBAC definitions, Policy and Role assignments and some more relevant information
    • Tenant tree including all Policy and Role assignments AND all Custom Policy/Set and Role definitions
      alt text

AzGovViz Setup Guide

💡 Detailed Setup Guide

Technical documentation

Permissions overview

alt text

Required permissions in Azure

This permission is mandatory in each and every scenario!

Scenario Permissions
ANY
Console or AzureDevOps Pipeline
Reader Role assignment on Management Group

Required permissions in Azure Active Directory

Scenario Permissions
A
Console | Member user account
No AAD permissions required
B
Console | Guest user account
Add assignment for the Guest user to AAD Role Directory readers
OR
Use parameters:
 -NoAADGuestUsers
 -NoAADGroupsResolveMembers
 -NoAADServicePrincipalResolve
💡 Compare member and guest default permissions
C
Console | Service Principal
Option 1 (simple setup but more read permissions than required)
Add assignment for the Service Principal to AAD Role Directory readers
💡 Directory readers

Option 2 (explicit permission model)
Feature Permissions Parameter
Get identity
Role assignments
Service Principal's App registration
grant with Azure Active Directory Graph permissions:
Application permissions / Directory / Read.All
💡 Read directory data
n/a
Get AAD
Guest Users
Service Principal's App registration
grant with Microsoft Graph permissions:
Application permissions / User / User.Read.All
💡 Get user
NoAADGuestUsers
Get AAD
Groups
Service Principal's App registration
grant with Microsoft Graph permissions:
Application permissions / Group / Group.Read.All
💡 Get group
NoAADGroupsResolveMembers
Get AAD
SP/App
Service Principal's App registration
grant with Microsoft Graph permissions:
Application permissions / Application / Application.Read.All
💡 Get servicePrincipal, Get application
NoAADServicePrincipalResolve
D
Azure DevOps Pipeline | ServicePrincipal (Service Connection)
Option 1 (simple setup but more read permissions than required)
Add assignment for the Azure DevOps Service Connection's Service Principal to AAD Role Directory readers
💡 Directory readers

Option 2 (explicit permission model)
Feature Permissions Parameter
Get identity
Role assignments
Azure DevOps Service Connection's App registration
grant with Azure Active Directory Graph permissions:
Application permissions / Directory / Read.All
💡 Read directory data
n/a
Get AAD
Guest Users
Azure DevOps Service Connection's App registration
grant with Microsoft Graph permissions:
Application permissions / User / User.Read.All
💡 Get user
NoAADGuestUsers
Get AAD
Groups
Azure DevOps Service Connection's App registration
grant with Microsoft Graph permissions:
Application permissions / Group / Group.Read.All
💡 Get group
NoAADGroupsResolveMembers
Get AAD
SP/App
Azure DevOps Service Connection's App registration
grant with Microsoft Graph permissions:
Application permissions / Application / Application.Read.All
💡 Get servicePrincipal, Get application
NoAADServicePrincipalResolve

Permissions in Azure Active Directory for App registration:
alt text

PowerShell

Parameters

  • -ManagementGroupId
    Management Group Id (Root Management Group Id equals your Tenant Id)
  • -CsvDelimiter
    - The world is split into two kinds of delimiters - comma and semicolon - choose yours (default is semicolon ';')
  • -OutputPath
  • -AzureDevOpsWikiAsCode
    - Use this parameter only when running AzGovViz in a Azure DevOps Pipeline
  • -DoNotShowRoleAssignmentsUserData
    - Scrub personally identifiable information (PII)
  • -LimitCriticalPercentage
    - Limit warning level, default is 80%
  • ~~
    -HierarchyTreeOnly
    ~~
    -HierarchyMapOnly
    - Output only the HierarchyMap for Management Groups including linked Subscriptions
  • -SubscriptionQuotaIdWhitelist
    - Process only Subscriptions with defined QuotaId(s). Example: .\AzGovVizParallel.ps1
    -SubscriptionQuotaIdWhitelist MSDN_,Enterprise_
  • -NoResourceProvidersDetailed
    - Disables output for ResourceProvider states for all Subscriptions in the TenantSummary section, in large Tenants this can become time consuming
  • -NoASCSecureScore
    - Disables ASC Secure Score request for Subscriptions and Management Groups.
  • ~~
    -DisablePolicyComplianceStates
    ~~
    -NoPolicyComplianceStates
    - Will not query policy compliance states. You may want to use this parameter to accellerate script execution or when receiving error 'ResponseTooLarge'.
  • -NoResourceDiagnosticsPolicyLifecycle
    - Disables Resource Diagnostics Policy Lifecycle recommendations
  • -NoAADGroupsResolveMembers
    - Disables resolving Azure Active Directory Group memberships
  • -NoAADGuestUsers
    - Disables resolving Azure Active Directory User type (Guest or Member)
  • ~~
    -NoServicePrincipalResolve
    ~~
    -NoAADServicePrincipalResolve
    - Disables resolving ServicePrincipals
  • ~~
    -ServicePrincipalExpiryWarningDays
    ~~
    -AADServicePrincipalExpiryWarningDays
    - Define warning period for Service Principal secret and certificate expiry; default is 14 days
  • -NoAzureConsumption
    - Azure Consumption data should not be collected/reported
  • -AzureConsumptionPeriod
    - Define for which time period Azure Consumption data should be gathered; default is 1 day
  • -NoAzureConsumptionReportExportToCSV
    - Azure Consumption data should not be exported (CSV)
  • -NoScopeInsights
    - Q: Why would you want to do this? A: In larger tenants the ScopeInsights section blows up the html file (up to unusable due to html file size). Use
    -LargeTenant
    to further reduce the output.
  • -ThrottleLimit
    - leveraging PowerShell´s parallel capability you can define the ThrottleLimit (default=5; 💡 values from 5 up to 15 proved to perform best)
  • -DoTranscript
    - Log the console output
  • -SubscriptionId4AzContext
    - Define the Subscription Id to use for AzContext (default is to use a random Subscription Id)
  • -PolicyAtScopeOnly
    - Removing 'inherited' lines in the HTML file for 'Policy Assignments'; use this parameter if you run against a larger tenants. Note using parameter
    -LargeTenant
    will set
    -PolicyAtScopeOnly $true
  • -RBACAtScopeOnly
    - Removing 'inherited' lines in the HTML file for 'Role Assignments'; use this parameter if you run against a larger tenants. Note using parameter
    -LargeTenant
    will set
    -RBACAtScopeOnly $true
  • ~~
    -CsvExport
    ~~
    -NoCsvExport
    - Do not export enriched data for 'Role assignments', 'Policy assignments' data and 'all resources' (subscriptionId, managementGroup path, resourceType, id, name, location, tags, createdTime, changedTime)
  • ~~
    -PolicyIncludeResourceGroups
    ~~
    -DoNotIncludeResourceGroupsOnPolicy
    - Do not include Policy assignments on ResourceGroups
  • ~~
    -RBACIncludeResourceGroupsAndResources
    ~~
    -DoNotIncludeResourceGroupsAndResourcesOnRBAC
    - Do not include Role assignments on ResourceGroups and Resources
  • -ChangeTrackingDays
    - Define the period for Change tracking on newly created and updated custom Policy, PolicySet and RBAC Role definitions and Policy/RBAC Role assignments (default is '14')
  • -FileTimeStampFormat
    - Define the time format for the output files (default is
    yyyyMMdd_HHmmss
    )
  • ~~
    -JsonExport
    ~~
    -NoJsonExport
    - Do not enable export of ManagementGroup Hierarchy including all MG/Sub Policy/RBAC definitions, Policy/RBAC assignments and some more relevant information to JSON
  • -JsonExportExcludeResourceGroups
    - JSON Export will not include ResourceGroups (Policy & Role assignments)
  • -JsonExportExcludeResources
    - JSON Export will not include Resources (Role assignments)
  • -LargeTenant
    - A large tenant is a tenant with more than ~500 Subscriptions - the HTML output for large tenants simply becomes too big. Using this parameter the following parameters will be set: -PolicyAtScopeOnly $true, -RBACAtScopeOnly $true, -NoResourceProvidersDetailed $true, -NoScopeInsights $true
  • -HtmlTableRowsLimit
    - Although the parameter
    -LargeTenant
    was introduced recently, still the html output may become too large to be processed properly. The new parameter defines the limit of rows - if for the html processing part the limit is reached then the html table will not be created (csv and json output will still be created). Default rows limit is 40.000
  • -AADGroupMembersLimit
    - Defines the limit (default=500) of AAD Group members; For AAD Groups that have more members than the defined limit Group members will not be resolved
  • -NoResources
    - Will speed up the processing time but information like Resource diagnostics capability and resource type stats (featured for large tenants)
    • Passed tests: Powershell Core 7.1.3 on Windows
    • Passed tests: Powershell Core 7.1.3 Azure DevOps hosted ubuntu-18.04

Integrate with AzOps

Did you know you can run AzOps from Azure DevOps? Check AzOps Accellerator.
You can integrate AzGovViz (same project as AzOps).

  pipelines:
    - pipeline: 'Push'
      source: 'AzOps - Push'
      trigger:
        branches:
          include:
            - master

Security

AzGovViz creates very detailed information about your Azure Governance setup. In your organization's best interest the outputs should be protected from not authorized access!

Facts

Disabled Subscriptions and Subscriptions where Quota Id starts with with "AAD" are being skipped, all others are queried. More info on Quota Id / Offer numbers: <a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/cost-management-billing/costs/understand-cost-mgt-data#supported-microsoft-azure-offers" target="blank">Supported Microsoft Azure offers .

ARM Limits are not acquired programmatically, they are hardcoded. The links used to check related Limits are commented in the param section of the script.

Contributions

Please feel free to contribute. Thanks to so many supporters - testing, giving feedback, making suggestions, presenting use-case, posting/blogging articles, refactoring code - THANK YOU!

Thanks Stefan Stranger (Microsoft) for providing me with his AzGovViz outputs executed on his implementation of EnterpriseScale. Make sure you read Stefan´s Blog Article: Enterprise-Scale - Policy Driven Governance

Thanks Frank Oltmanns-Mack (Microsoft) for providing me with his AzGovViz outputs executed on his implementation of EnterpriseScale.

Special thanks to Tim Wanierke, Brooks Vaughn and Friedrich Weinmann (Microsoft).

Kudos to the TableFilter Project Team!

AzAdvertizer

alt text

Also check https://www.azadvertizer.net - AzAdvertizer helps you to keep up with the pace by providing overview and insights on new releases and changes/updates for Azure Governance capabilities such as Azure Policy's Policy definitions, initiatives (Set definitions), aliases and Azure RBAC's Role definitions and resource provider operations.

Final Note

Please note that while being developed by a Microsoft employee, AzGovViz is not a Microsoft service or product. AzGovViz is a personal/community driven project, there are none implicit or explicit obligations related to this project, it is provided 'as is' with no warranties and confer no rights.

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