httpclientutil

by JourWon

JourWon /httpclientutil

HttpClient工具类,简单轻松的实现get,post,put和delete请求

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HttpClient工具类

最近在工作中需要在后台调用短信接口,经过研究决定使用HttpClient,自己封装了一个HttpClient工具类,简单轻松的实现get,post,put和delete请求,希望分享给大家。

1. 什么是HttpClient

HTTP 协议可能是现在 Internet 上使用得最多、最重要的协议了,越来越多的 Java 应用程序需要直接通过 HTTP 协议来访问网络资源。虽然在 JDK 的 java net包中已经提供了访问 HTTP 协议的基本功能,但是对于大部分应用程序来说,JDK 库本身提供的功能还不够丰富和灵活。HttpClient 是Apache HttpComponents 下的子项目,用来提供高效的、最新的、功能丰富的支持 HTTP 协议的客户端编程工具包,并且它支持 HTTP 协议最新的版本和建议。

2. 功能介绍

  • 实现了所有 HTTP 的方法(GET,POST,PUT,DELETE 等)
  • 支持自动转向
  • 支持 HTTPS 协议
  • 支持代理服务器等

3. 版本比较

注意本篇博客主要是基于 HttpClient4.5.5 版本的来讲解的,也是现在最新的版本,之所以要提供版本说明的是因为 HttpClient 3 版本和 HttpClient 4 版本差别还是很多大的,基本HttpClient里面的接口都变了,你把 HttpClient 3 版本的代码拿到 HttpClient 4 上面都运行不起来,会报错的。所以一定要注意 HtppClient 的版本问题。

4. HttpClient不能做的事情

HttpClient 不是浏览器,它是一个客户端 HTTP 协议传输类库。HttpClient 被用来发送和接受 HTTP 消息。HttpClient 不会处理 HTTP 消息的内容,不会进行 javascript 解析,不会关心 content type,如果没有明确设置,HttpClient 也不会对请求进行格式化、重定向 url,或者其他任何和 HTTP 消息传输相关的功能。

5. HttpClient使用流程

使用HttpClient发送请求、接收响应很简单,一般需要如下几步即可。 1. 创建HttpClient对象。 2. 创建请求方法的实例,并指定请求URL。如果需要发送GET请求,创建HttpGet对象;如果需要发送POST请求,创建HttpPost对象。 3. 如果需要发送请求参数,可调用HttpGetsetParams方法来添加请求参数;对于HttpPost对象而言,可调用setEntity(HttpEntity entity)方法来设置请求参数。 4. 调用HttpClient对象的execute(HttpUriRequest request)发送请求,该方法返回一个HttpResponse对象。 5. 调用HttpResponse的getAllHeaders()、getHeaders(String name)等方法可获取服务器的响应头;调用HttpResponse的getEntity()方法可获取HttpEntity对象,该对象包装了服务器的响应内容。程序可通过该对象获取服务器的响应内容。 6. 释放连接。无论执行方法是否成功,都必须释放连接

6. HttpClient工具类

本项目采用spring-boot构建,话不多说,上代码

6.1 添加依赖

        4.5.5

    <java.version>1.8</java.version>
    <project.build.sourceencoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceencoding>
    <project.reporting.outputencoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputencoding>
</properties>

<dependencies>
    <!-- springboot的web和test启动库 -->
    <dependency>
        <groupid>org.springframework.boot</groupid>
        <artifactid>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactid>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupid>org.springframework.boot</groupid>
        <artifactid>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactid>
    </dependency>

    <!-- apache httpclient组件 -->
    <dependency>
        <groupid>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupid>
        <artifactid>httpclient</artifactid>
    </dependency>

</dependencies>

<build>
    <finalname>${project.artifactId}</finalname>
    <plugins>
        <plugin>
            <groupid>org.springframework.boot</groupid>
            <artifactid>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactid>
        </plugin>
        <!-- 跳过单元测试 -->
        <plugin>
            <groupid>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupid>
            <artifactid>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactid>
            <configuration>
                <skiptests>true</skiptests>
            </configuration>
        </plugin>
    </plugins>
</build>

6.2 编写spring-boot启动类

/**
 * Description: springboot启动类
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {

public static void main(String[] args) {
    SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
}

}

6.3 编写get和post请求测试controller

/**
 * Description: get和post请求测试controller
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/hello")
public class HelloWorldController {

@GetMapping("/get")
public String get() throws InterruptedException {
    return "get无参请求成功";
}

@GetMapping("/getWithParam")
public String getWithParam(@RequestParam String message) {
    return "get带参请求成功,参数message: " + message;
}

@PostMapping("/post")
public String post(@RequestHeader("User-Agent") String userAgent,
        @RequestHeader("Accept") String accept,
        @RequestHeader("Accept-Language") String acceptLanguage,
        @RequestHeader("Accept-Encoding") String acceptEncoding,
        @RequestHeader("Cookie") String cookie,
        @RequestHeader("Connection") String conn) {
    // 打印请求头信息
    System.out.println("Cookie = " + cookie);
    System.out.println("Connection = " + conn);
    System.out.println("Accept = " + accept);
    System.out.println("Accept-Language = " + acceptLanguage);
    System.out.println("Accept-Encoding = " + acceptEncoding);
    System.out.println("User-Agent = " + userAgent);

    return "post无参请求成功";
}

@PostMapping("/postWithParam")
public String postWithParam(@RequestParam String code, @RequestParam String message) {
    return "post带参请求成功,参数code: " + code + ",参数message: " + message;
}

}

6.4 创建httpClient响应结果对象

/**
 * Description: 封装httpClient响应结果
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
public class HttpClientResult implements Serializable {

/**
 * 响应状态码
 */
private int code;

/**
 * 响应数据
 */
private String content;

}

6.5 重点,编写httpclient工具类

/**
 * Description: httpClient工具类
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
public class HttpClientUtils {

// 编码格式。发送编码格式统一用UTF-8
private static final String ENCODING = "UTF-8";

// 设置连接超时时间,单位毫秒。
private static final int CONNECT_TIMEOUT = 6000;

// 请求获取数据的超时时间(即响应时间),单位毫秒。
private static final int SOCKET_TIMEOUT = 6000;

/**
 * 发送get请求;不带请求头和请求参数
 * 
 * @param url 请求地址
 * @return
 * @throws Exception
 */
public static HttpClientResult doGet(String url) throws Exception {
    return doGet(url, null, null);
}

/**
 * 发送get请求;带请求参数
 * 
 * @param url 请求地址
 * @param params 请求参数集合
 * @return
 * @throws Exception
 */
public static HttpClientResult doGet(String url, Map<string string> params) throws Exception {
    return doGet(url, null, params);
}

/**
 * 发送get请求;带请求头和请求参数
 * 
 * @param url 请求地址
 * @param headers 请求头集合
 * @param params 请求参数集合
 * @return
 * @throws Exception
 */
public static HttpClientResult doGet(String url, Map<string string> headers, Map<string string> params) throws Exception {
    // 创建httpClient对象
    CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();

    // 创建访问的地址
    URIBuilder uriBuilder = new URIBuilder(url);
    if (params != null) {
        Set<entry string>&gt; entrySet = params.entrySet();
        for (Entry<string string> entry : entrySet) {
            uriBuilder.setParameter(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
        }
    }

    // 创建http对象
    HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(uriBuilder.build());
    /**
     * setConnectTimeout:设置连接超时时间,单位毫秒。
     * setConnectionRequestTimeout:设置从connect Manager(连接池)获取Connection
     * 超时时间,单位毫秒。这个属性是新加的属性,因为目前版本是可以共享连接池的。
     * setSocketTimeout:请求获取数据的超时时间(即响应时间),单位毫秒。 如果访问一个接口,多少时间内无法返回数据,就直接放弃此次调用。
     */
    RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
    httpGet.setConfig(requestConfig);

    // 设置请求头
    packageHeader(headers, httpGet);

    // 创建httpResponse对象
    CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;

    try {
        // 执行请求并获得响应结果
        return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpGet);
    } finally {
        // 释放资源
        release(httpResponse, httpClient);
    }
}

/**
 * 发送post请求;不带请求头和请求参数
 * 
 * @param url 请求地址
 * @return
 * @throws Exception
 */
public static HttpClientResult doPost(String url) throws Exception {
    return doPost(url, null, null);
}

/**
 * 发送post请求;带请求参数
 * 
 * @param url 请求地址
 * @param params 参数集合
 * @return
 * @throws Exception
 */
public static HttpClientResult doPost(String url, Map<string string> params) throws Exception {
    return doPost(url, null, params);
}

/**
 * 发送post请求;带请求头和请求参数
 * 
 * @param url 请求地址
 * @param headers 请求头集合
 * @param params 请求参数集合
 * @return
 * @throws Exception
 */
public static HttpClientResult doPost(String url, Map<string string> headers, Map<string string> params) throws Exception {
    // 创建httpClient对象
    CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();

    // 创建http对象
    HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(url);
    /**
     * setConnectTimeout:设置连接超时时间,单位毫秒。
     * setConnectionRequestTimeout:设置从connect Manager(连接池)获取Connection
     * 超时时间,单位毫秒。这个属性是新加的属性,因为目前版本是可以共享连接池的。
     * setSocketTimeout:请求获取数据的超时时间(即响应时间),单位毫秒。 如果访问一个接口,多少时间内无法返回数据,就直接放弃此次调用。
     */
    RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
    httpPost.setConfig(requestConfig);
    // 设置请求头
    /*httpPost.setHeader("Cookie", "");
    httpPost.setHeader("Connection", "keep-alive");
    httpPost.setHeader("Accept", "application/json");
    httpPost.setHeader("Accept-Language", "zh-CN,zh;q=0.9");
    httpPost.setHeader("Accept-Encoding", "gzip, deflate, br");
    httpPost.setHeader("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/65.0.3325.181 Safari/537.36");*/
    packageHeader(headers, httpPost);

    // 封装请求参数
    packageParam(params, httpPost);

    // 创建httpResponse对象
    CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;

    try {
        // 执行请求并获得响应结果
        return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpPost);
    } finally {
        // 释放资源
        release(httpResponse, httpClient);
    }
}

/**
 * 发送put请求;不带请求参数
 * 
 * @param url 请求地址
 * @param params 参数集合
 * @return
 * @throws Exception
 */
public static HttpClientResult doPut(String url) throws Exception {
    return doPut(url);
}

/**
 * 发送put请求;带请求参数
 * 
 * @param url 请求地址
 * @param params 参数集合
 * @return
 * @throws Exception
 */
public static HttpClientResult doPut(String url, Map<string string> params) throws Exception {
    CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();
    HttpPut httpPut = new HttpPut(url);
    RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
    httpPut.setConfig(requestConfig);

    packageParam(params, httpPut);

    CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;

    try {
        return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpPut);
    } finally {
        release(httpResponse, httpClient);
    }
}

/**
 * 发送delete请求;不带请求参数
 * 
 * @param url 请求地址
 * @param params 参数集合
 * @return
 * @throws Exception
 */
public static HttpClientResult doDelete(String url) throws Exception {
    CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClients.createDefault();
    HttpDelete httpDelete = new HttpDelete(url);
    RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom().setConnectTimeout(CONNECT_TIMEOUT).setSocketTimeout(SOCKET_TIMEOUT).build();
    httpDelete.setConfig(requestConfig);

    CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse = null;
    try {
        return getHttpClientResult(httpResponse, httpClient, httpDelete);
    } finally {
        release(httpResponse, httpClient);
    }
}

/**
 * 发送delete请求;带请求参数
 * 
 * @param url 请求地址
 * @param params 参数集合
 * @return
 * @throws Exception
 */
public static HttpClientResult doDelete(String url, Map<string string> params) throws Exception {
    if (params == null) {
        params = new HashMap<string string>();
    }

    params.put("_method", "delete");
    return doPost(url, params);
}

/**
 * Description: 封装请求头
 * @param params
 * @param httpMethod
 */
public static void packageHeader(Map<string string> params, HttpRequestBase httpMethod) {
    // 封装请求头
    if (params != null) {
        Set<entry string>&gt; entrySet = params.entrySet();
        for (Entry<string string> entry : entrySet) {
            // 设置到请求头到HttpRequestBase对象中
            httpMethod.setHeader(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
        }
    }
}

/**
 * Description: 封装请求参数
 * 
 * @param params
 * @param httpMethod
 * @throws UnsupportedEncodingException
 */
public static void packageParam(Map<string string> params, HttpEntityEnclosingRequestBase httpMethod)
        throws UnsupportedEncodingException {
    // 封装请求参数
    if (params != null) {
        List<namevaluepair> nvps = new ArrayList<namevaluepair>();
        Set<entry string>&gt; entrySet = params.entrySet();
        for (Entry<string string> entry : entrySet) {
            nvps.add(new BasicNameValuePair(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue()));
        }

        // 设置到请求的http对象中
        httpMethod.setEntity(new UrlEncodedFormEntity(nvps, ENCODING));
    }
}

/**
 * Description: 获得响应结果
 * 
 * @param httpResponse
 * @param httpClient
 * @param httpMethod
 * @return
 * @throws Exception
 */
public static HttpClientResult getHttpClientResult(CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse,
        CloseableHttpClient httpClient, HttpRequestBase httpMethod) throws Exception {
    // 执行请求
    httpResponse = httpClient.execute(httpMethod);

    // 获取返回结果
    if (httpResponse != null &amp;&amp; httpResponse.getStatusLine() != null) {
        String content = "";
        if (httpResponse.getEntity() != null) {
            content = EntityUtils.toString(httpResponse.getEntity(), ENCODING);
        }
        return new HttpClientResult(httpResponse.getStatusLine().getStatusCode(), content);
    }
    return new HttpClientResult(HttpStatus.SC_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR);
}

/**
 * Description: 释放资源
 * 
 * @param httpResponse
 * @param httpClient
 * @throws IOException
 */
public static void release(CloseableHttpResponse httpResponse, CloseableHttpClient httpClient) throws IOException {
    // 释放资源
    if (httpResponse != null) {
        httpResponse.close();
    }
    if (httpClient != null) {
        httpClient.close();
    }
}

}

6.6 启动spring-boot,测试get、post请求

/**
 * Description: HttpClientUtils工具类测试
 * 
 * @author JourWon
 * @date Created on 2018年4月19日
 */
public class HttpClientUtilsTest {

/**
 * Description: 测试get无参请求
 * 
 * @throws Exception
 */
@Test
public void testGet() throws Exception {
    HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doGet("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/get");
    System.out.println(result);
}

/**
 * Description: 测试get带参请求
 * 
 * @throws Exception
 */
@Test
public void testGetWithParam() throws Exception {
    Map<string string> params = new HashMap<string string>();
    params.put("message", "helloworld");
    HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doGet("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/getWithParam", params);
    System.out.println(result);
}

/**
 * Description: 测试post带请求头不带请求参数
 * 
 * @throws Exception
 */
@Test
public void testPost() throws Exception {
    Map<string string> headers = new HashMap<string string>();
    headers.put("Cookie", "123");
    headers.put("Connection", "keep-alive");
    headers.put("Accept", "application/json");
    headers.put("Accept-Language", "zh-CN,zh;q=0.9");
    headers.put("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/65.0.3325.181 Safari/537.36");
    HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doPost("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/post", headers, null);
    System.out.println(result);
}

/**
 * Description: 测试post带参请求
 * 
 * @throws Exception
 */
@Test
public void testPostWithParam() throws Exception {
    Map<string string> params = new HashMap<string string>();
    params.put("code", "0");
    params.put("message", "helloworld");
    HttpClientResult result = HttpClientUtils.doPost("http://127.0.0.1:8080/hello/postWithParam", params);
    System.out.println(result);
}

}

完整代码下载链接

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