microservices-demo

by GoogleCloudPlatform

GoogleCloudPlatform /microservices-demo

Sample cloud-native application with 10 microservices showcasing Kubernetes, Istio, gRPC and OpenCen...

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Online Boutique is a cloud-native microservices demo application. Online Boutique consists of a 10-tier microservices application. The application is a web-based e-commerce app where users can browse items, add them to the cart, and purchase them.

Google uses this application to demonstrate use of technologies like Kubernetes/GKE, Istio, Stackdriver, gRPC and OpenCensus. This application works on any Kubernetes cluster (such as a local one), as well as Google Kubernetes Engine. It’s easy to deploy with little to no configuration.

If you’re using this demo, please ★Star this repository to show your interest!

👓Note to Googlers: Please fill out the form at go/microservices-demo if you are using this application.

Looking for the old Hipster Shop frontend interface? Use the manifests in release v0.1.5.

Screenshots

| Home Page | Checkout Screen | | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | | Screenshot of store homepage | Screenshot of checkout screen |

Service Architecture

Online Boutique is composed of many microservices written in different languages that talk to each other over gRPC.

Architecture of
microservices

Find Protocol Buffers Descriptions at the

./pb
directory.

| Service | Language | Description | | ---------------------------------------------------- | ------------- | --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | | frontend | Go | Exposes an HTTP server to serve the website. Does not require signup/login and generates session IDs for all users automatically. | | cartservice | C# | Stores the items in the user's shopping cart in Redis and retrieves it. | | productcatalogservice | Go | Provides the list of products from a JSON file and ability to search products and get individual products. | | currencyservice | Node.js | Converts one money amount to another currency. Uses real values fetched from European Central Bank. It's the highest QPS service. | | paymentservice | Node.js | Charges the given credit card info (mock) with the given amount and returns a transaction ID. | | shippingservice | Go | Gives shipping cost estimates based on the shopping cart. Ships items to the given address (mock) | | emailservice | Python | Sends users an order confirmation email (mock). | | checkoutservice | Go | Retrieves user cart, prepares order and orchestrates the payment, shipping and the email notification. | | recommendationservice | Python | Recommends other products based on what's given in the cart. | | adservice | Java | Provides text ads based on given context words. | | loadgenerator | Python/Locust | Continuously sends requests imitating realistic user shopping flows to the frontend. |

Features

  • Kubernetes/GKE: The app is designed to run on Kubernetes (both locally on "Docker for Desktop", as well as on the cloud with GKE).
  • gRPC: Microservices use a high volume of gRPC calls to communicate to each other.
  • Istio: Application works on Istio service mesh.
  • OpenCensus Tracing: Most services are instrumented using OpenCensus trace interceptors for gRPC/HTTP.
  • Stackdriver APM: Many services are instrumented with Profiling, Tracing and Debugging. In addition to these, using Istio enables features like Request/Response Metrics and Context Graph out of the box. When it is running out of Google Cloud, this code path remains inactive.
  • Skaffold: Application is deployed to Kubernetes with a single command using Skaffold.
  • Synthetic Load Generation: The application demo comes with a background job that creates realistic usage patterns on the website using Locust load generator.

Installation

We offer the following installation methods:

  1. Running locally (~20 minutes) You will build and deploy microservices images to a single-node Kubernetes cluster running on your development machine. There are three options to run a Kubernetes cluster locally for this demo:

    • Minikube. Recommended for Linux hosts (also supports Mac/Windows).
    • Docker for Desktop. Recommended for Mac/Windows.
    • Kind. Supports Mac/Windows/Linux.
  2. Running on Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) (~30 minutes) You will build, upload and deploy the container images to a Kubernetes cluster on Google Cloud.

  3. Using pre-built container images: (~10 minutes, you will still need to follow one of the steps above up until

    skaffold run
    command). With this option, you will use pre-built container images that are available publicly, instead of building them yourself, which takes a long time).

Prerequisites

Option 1: Running locally

💡 Recommended if you're planning to develop the application or giving it a try on your local cluster.

  1. Launch a local Kubernetes cluster with one of the following tools:
- To launch **Minikube** (tested with Ubuntu Linux). Please, ensure that the
   local Kubernetes cluster has at least:
    - 4 CPU's
    - 4.0 GiB memory
    - 32 GB disk space

minikube start --cpus=4 --memory 4096 --disk-size 32g
  • To launch Docker for Desktop (tested with Mac/Windows). Go to Preferences:

    • choose “Enable Kubernetes”,
    • set CPUs to at least 3, and Memory to at least 6.0 GiB
    • on the "Disk" tab, set at least 32 GB disk space
  • To launch a Kind cluster:

    kind create cluster

  1. Run

    kubectl get nodes
    to verify you're connected to “Kubernetes on Docker”.
  2. Run

    skaffold run
    (first time will be slow, it can take ~20 minutes). This will build and deploy the application. If you need to rebuild the images automatically as you refactor the code, run
    skaffold dev
    command.
  3. Run

    kubectl get pods
    to verify the Pods are ready and running.
  4. Access the web frontend through your browser

    • Minikube requires you to run a command to access the frontend service:
    minikube service frontend-external
    
- **Docker For Desktop** should automatically provide the frontend at http://localhost:80

  • Kind does not provision an IP address for the service. You must run a port-forwarding process to access the frontend at http://localhost:8080:
kubectl port-forward deployment/frontend 8080:8080

Option 2: Running on Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE)

💡 Recommended if you're using Google Cloud Platform and want to try it on a realistic cluster.

  1. Create a Google Kubernetes Engine cluster and make sure

    kubectl
    is pointing to the cluster.
    gcloud services enable container.googleapis.com
    
    gcloud container clusters create demo --enable-autoupgrade \
        --enable-autoscaling --min-nodes=3 --max-nodes=10 --num-nodes=5 --zone=us-central1-a
    
    kubectl get nodes
    
  2. Enable Google Container Registry (GCR) on your GCP project and configure the

    docker
    CLI to authenticate to GCR:
    gcloud services enable containerregistry.googleapis.com
    
    gcloud auth configure-docker -q
    
  3. In the root of this repository, run

    skaffold run --default-repo=gcr.io/[PROJECT_ID]
    , where [PROJECT_ID] is your GCP project ID.

    This command:

- builds the container images
- pushes them to GCR
- applies the `./kubernetes-manifests` deploying the application to
  Kubernetes.

Troubleshooting: If you get "No space left on device" error on Google Cloud Shell, you can build the images on Google Cloud Build: Enable the Cloud Build API, then run skaffold run -p gcb --default-repo=gcr.io/[PROJECT_ID] instead.

  1. Find the IP address of your application, then visit the application on your browser to confirm installation.

    kubectl get service frontend-external
    

    Troubleshooting: A Kubernetes bug (will be fixed in 1.12) combined with a Skaffold bug causes load balancer to not to work even after getting an IP address. If you are seeing this, run

    kubectl get service frontend-external -o=yaml | kubectl apply -f-
    to trigger load balancer reconfiguration.

Option 3: Using Pre-Built Container Images

💡 Recommended if you want to deploy the app faster in fewer steps to an existing cluster.

NOTE: If you need to create a Kubernetes cluster locally or on the cloud, follow "Option 1" or "Option 2" until you reach the

skaffold run
step.

This option offers you pre-built public container images that are easy to deploy by deploying the release manifest directly to an existing cluster.

Prerequisite: a running Kubernetes cluster (either local or on cloud).

  1. Clone this repository, and go to the repository directory
  2. Run
    kubectl apply -f ./release/kubernetes-manifests.yaml
    to deploy the app.
  3. Run
    kubectl get pods
    to see pods are in a Ready state.
  4. Find the IP address of your application, then visit the application on your browser to confirm installation.
   kubectl get service/frontend-external

Option 4: Deploying on a Istio-enabled GKE cluster

Note: if you followed GKE deployment steps above, run

skaffold delete
first to delete what's deployed.
  1. Create a GKE cluster (described in "Option 2").

  2. Use the Istio on GKE add-on to install Istio to your existing GKE cluster.

   gcloud beta container clusters update demo \
       --zone=us-central1-a \
       --update-addons=Istio=ENABLED \
       --istio-config=auth=MTLS_PERMISSIVE
  1. (Optional) Enable Stackdriver Tracing/Logging with Istio Stackdriver Adapter by following this guide.

  2. Install the automatic sidecar injection (annotate the

    default
    namespace with the label):
   kubectl label namespace default istio-injection=enabled
  1. Apply the manifests in
    ./istio-manifests
    directory. (This is required only once.)
   kubectl apply -f ./istio-manifests
  1. In the root of this repository, run

    skaffold run --default-repo=gcr.io/[PROJECT_ID]
    , where [PROJECT_ID] is your GCP project ID.

    This command:

- builds the container images
- pushes them to GCR
- applies the `./kubernetes-manifests` deploying the application to
  Kubernetes.

Troubleshooting: If you get "No space left on device" error on Google Cloud Shell, you can build the images on Google Cloud Build: Enable the Cloud Build API, then run skaffold run -p gcb --default-repo=gcr.io/[PROJECT_ID] instead.

  1. Run

    kubectl get pods
    to see pods are in a healthy and ready state.
  2. Find the IP address of your Istio gateway Ingress or Service, and visit the application.

   INGRESS_HOST="$(kubectl -n istio-system get service istio-ingressgateway \
      -o jsonpath='{.status.loadBalancer.ingress[0].ip}')"
   echo "$INGRESS_HOST"
   curl -v "http://$INGRESS_HOST"

Cleanup

If you've deployed the application with

skaffold run
command, you can run
skaffold delete
to clean up the deployed resources.

If you've deployed the application with

kubectl apply -f [...]
, you can run
kubectl delete -f [...]
with the same argument to clean up the deployed resources.

Conferences featuring Online Boutique


This is not an official Google project.

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