Clustering-with-Deep-learning

by ElieAljalbout

Generic implementation for clustering with deep learning : representation learning (DNN) + clusterin...

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Deep Learning for Clustering

Code for project "Deep Learning for Clustering" under lab course "Deep Learning for Computer Vision and Biomedicine" - TUM. Depends on numpy, theano, lasagne, scikit-learn, matplotlib.

Contributors

Related Papers:

This repository is an implementation of the paper : Elie Aljalbout, Vladimir Golkov, Yawar Siddiqui, Daniel Cremers "Clustering with Deep Learning: Taxonomy and new methods" - arxiv: https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.07648

Usage

Use the main script for training, visualizing clusters and/or reporting clustering metrics

python main.py 
Option | | -------- | ---
-d DATASET_NAME, --dataset DATASET_NAME
|
(Required) Dataset on which autoencoder is to be trained trained, or metrics/visualizations are to be performed [MNIST,COIL20]
-a ARCH_IDX, --architecture ARCH_IDX
|
(Required) Index of architecture of autoencoder in the json file (archs/)
--pretrain EPOCHS
|
Pretrain the autoencoder for specified #epochs specified by architecture on specified dataset
--cluster EPOCHS
|
Refine the autoencoder for specified #epochs with clustering loss, assumes that pretraining results are available
--metrics
|
Report k-means clustering metrics on the clustered latent space, assumes pretrain and cluster based training have been performed
--visualize
|
Visualize the image space and latent space, assumes pre-training and cluster based training have been performed

Project Structure

Folder / File

Description
archs Contains json files specifying architectures for autoencoder networks used. File

mnist.json
contains architectures for MNIST dataset. We use the second architecture for the reported results (command line argument
-a 1
)
coil, mnist Contains the datasets COIL20 and MNIST respectively
logs Output folder for logs generated by the scripts. Named by date and time of script execution
plots Scatter plots showing the raw, pre-trained latent space, and the final latent space clusters
savedparams Contains saved network parameters and saved representation of inputs in latent space
customlayers.py Custom lasagne layers, Unpool2D - which performs inverse max pooling by replicating input pixels as dictated by the filter size, and the ClusteringLayer - a layer that outputs soft cluster assignments based on k-means cluster distance
main.py The main python script for training and evaluating the network
misc.py Contains dataset handlers and other utility methods
network.py Contains classes for parsing and building the network from json files and also for training the network

Autoencoder Builder

We've implemented a NetworkBuilder class that can be used to quickly describe the architecture of an autoencoder through a json file. The json specification of the architecture is a dictionary with the following fields

| Field | Description ---------|------------ name| Name identifier given to the architecture, used for file naming while saving parameters batchsize| Batch size to be used while training the network usebatchnorm| Whether to use batch normalization for convolutional/deconvolutional layers networktype| Type of network - convolutional or fully connected layers| A list describing the encoder part of the autoencoder

Further, each item in the layers list is a dictionary with the following fields

| Field | Description ---------|------------ type| Can be Input, Conv2D, MaxPool2D, MaxPool2D, Dense, Reshape, Deconv2D num_filters| For Conv2D/MaxPool2D/MaxPool2D/Deconv2D layers this field specifies number of filters filtersize| Dimensions of kernel for the above layers numunits| For Dense layer number of hidden units nonlinearity| Non-Linearity function used at output of the layer convmode| Can be used to specify the convolution mode like same, valid etc. for convolutional layers outputnonlinearity| If you want a different non linearity function at the output than the one which would be obtained by mirroring

Only the encoder part of the autoencoder needs to be specified, the decoder will be automatically generated by the class.

Example of a network description

{
    "name": "c-5-6_p_c-5-16_p_c-4-120",
    "use_batch_norm": 1,
    "batch_size": 100,
    "layers": [
      {
        "type": "Input",
        "output_shape":[1, 28, 28]
      },
      {
        "type": "Conv2D",
        "num_filters": 50,
        "filter_size": [5, 5],
        "non_linearity": "rectify"
      },
      {
        "type": "MaxPool2D*",
        "filter_size": [2, 2]
      },
      {
        "type": "Conv2D",
        "num_filters": 50,
        "filter_size": [5, 5],
        "non_linearity": "rectify"
      },
      {
        "type": "MaxPool2D*",
        "filter_size": [2, 2]
      },
      {
        "type": "Conv2D",
        "num_filters": 120,
        "filter_size": [4, 4],
        "non_linearity": "linear"
      }
    ]
  }

This would generate the network

50[5x5] 50[5x5]_bn max[2x2] 50[5x5] 50[5x5]_bn  max[2x2]
*
120[4x4] 120[4x4]_bn
*
50[4x4] 50[4x4]_bn ups*[2x2] 50[5x5] 50[5x5]_bn ups*[2x2] 1[5x5]

Experiments and Results

We trained and tested the network on two datasets - MNIST and COIL20

|Dataset| Image size | Number of samples | Number of clusters -------- | ---|---|--- MNIST| 28x28x1|60000|10 COIL20| 128x128x1|1440|20

Clustering was performed with two different loss functions -

  • Loss =
    KL-Divergence(soft assignment distribution, target distribution) + Autoencoder Reconstruction loss
    , where the target distribution is a distribution that improves cluster purity and puts more emphasis on data points assigned with a high confidence. For more details check out the DEC paper [1].
  • Loss =
    k-Means loss + Autoencoder Reconstruction loss

MNIST

Our network

| Clustering space| Clustering Accuracy| Normalized Mutual Information -------- | ---|---- Image pixels | 0.542|0.480 Autoencoder| 0.760|0.667 Autoencoder + k-Means Loss| 0.781| 0.796 Autoencoder + KLDiv Loss| 0.859| 0.825

Other networks

|Method| Clustering Accuracy| Normalized Mutual Information -------- | ---|---- DEC|0.843|0.800 DCN|0.830|0.810 CNN-RC| - |0.915 CNN-FD|-|0.876 DBC| 0.964|0.917

Note: The commit b34743114f68624b5371cd0d4c059b141422902f gives upto 0.96 accuracy and 0.92 NMI on the MNIST dataset. We will include it to the main branch once we can get better results with the COIL architecture

Latent space visualizations
Pixel space

Autoencoder

Autoencoder Latent Space Evolution (video)

Autoencoder

Autoencoder + KLDivergence

Autoencoder + KLDivergence Latent Space Evolution (video)

Autoencoder

Autoencoder + k-Means

COIL20

Our network

| Clustering space| Clustering Accuracy| Normalized Mutual Information -------- | ---|---- Image pixels | 0.689|0.793 Autoencoder| 0.739|0.828 Autoencoder + k-Means Loss| 0.745| 0.846 Autoencoder + KLDiv Loss| 0.762| 0.848

Other networks

|Method| Clustering Accuracy| Normalized Mutual Information -------- | ---|---- DEN|0.725|0.870 CNN-RC| - |1.000 DBC| 0.793|0.895

Latent space visualizations
Pixel space

Autoencoder

Autoencoder + k-Means

Autoencoder + KLDivergence

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