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Complete documentation in full color 
_.

.. image:: https://travis-ci.org/0101/pipetools.svg?branch=master :target: https://travis-ci.org/0101/pipetools

Pipetools

pipetools
is a python package that enables function composition similar to using Unix pipes.

Inspired by Pipe_ and Околомонадное_ (whatever that means...)

.. _Pipe: http://dev-tricks.net/pipe-infix-syntax-for-python .. _Околомонадное: http://honeyman.livejournal.com/122675.html?nojs=1

It allows piping of arbitrary functions and comes with a few handy shortcuts.

Source is on github_.

.. _github: https://github.com/0101/pipetools

Why?

Pipetools attempt to simplify function composition and make it more readable.

Why piping instead of regular composition? """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" I believe it to be easier to read, write and think about from left to right / top to bottom in the order that it's actually executed, instead of reversed order as it is with regular function composition (

(f • g)(x) == f(g(x))
).

Example

Say you want to create a list of python files in a given directory, ordered by filename length, as a string, each file on one line and also with line numbers:

.. code-block:: pycon

>>> print pyfiles_by_length('../pipetools')
0. main.py
1. utils.py
2. __init__.py
3. ds_builder.py

So you might write it like this:

.. code-block:: python

def pyfiles_by_length(directory):
    all_files = os.listdir(directory)
    py_files = [f for f in all_files if f.endswith('.py')]
    py_files.sort(key=len)
    numbered = enumerate(py_files)
    rows = ("{0}. {1}".format(i, f) for i, f in numbered)
    return '\n'.join(rows)

Or perhaps like this:

.. code-block:: python

def pyfiles_by_length(directory):
    return '\n'.join('{0}. {1}'.format(*x) for x in enumerate(sorted(
        [f for f in os.listdir(directory) if f.endswith('.py')], key=len)))

Or, if you're a mad scientist, you would probably do it like this:

.. code-block:: python

pyfiles_by_length = lambda d: (reduce('{0}\n{1}'.format,
    map(lambda x: '%d. %s' % x, enumerate(sorted(
        filter(lambda f: f.endswith('.py'), os.listdir(d)), key=len)))))

But there should be one -- and preferably only one -- obvious way to do it.

So which one is it? Well, to redeem the situation,

pipetools
give you yet another possibility!

.. code-block:: python

pyfiles_by_length = (pipe
    | os.listdir
    | where(X.endswith('.py'))
    | sort_by(len)
    | enumerate
    | foreach("{0}. {1}")
    | '\n'.join
)

So is this

The Right Way™
_? Probably not, but I think it's pretty cool, so you should give it a try! Read on to see how it works.

.. _

The Right Way™
: http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0020/

Installation

.. code-block:: console

$ pip install pipetools

Uh, what's that? 
_

Usage

.. _the-pipe:

The pipe """""""" The

pipe
object can be used to pipe functions together to form new functions, and it works like this:

.. code-block:: python

from pipetools import pipe

f = pipe | a | b | c

f(x) == c(b(a(x)))

A real example, sum of odd numbers from 0 to x:

.. code-block:: python

from functools import partial
from pipetools import pipe

odd_sum = pipe | range | partial(filter, lambda x: x % 2) | sum

odd_sum(10) # -> 25

Note that the chain up to the

sum
is lazy.

Automatic partial application in the pipe """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

As partial application is often useful when piping things together, it is done automatically when the pipe encounters a tuple, so this produces the same result as the previous example:

.. code-block:: python

odd_sum = pipe | range | (filter, lambda x: x % 2) | sum

As of

0.1.9
, this is even more powerful, see
X-partial  
_.

Built-in tools """"""""""""""

Pipetools contain a set of pipe-utils that solve some common tasks. For example there is a shortcut for the filter class from our example, called

where() 
_:

.. code-block:: python

from pipetools import pipe, where

odd_sum = pipe | range | where(lambda x: x % 2) | sum

Well that might be a bit more readable, but not really a huge improvement, but wait!

If a pipe-util is used as first or second item in the pipe (which happens quite often) the

pipe
at the beginning can be omitted:

.. code-block:: python

odd_sum = range | where(lambda x: x % 2) | sum

See

pipe-utils' documentation 
_.

OK, but what about the ugly lambda? """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

where() 
, but also
foreach() 
,
sort_by() 
_ and other
pipe-utils 
_ can be quite useful, but require a function as an argument, which can either be a named function -- which is OK if it does something complicated -- but often it's something simple, so it's appropriate to use a
lambda
. Except Python's lambdas are quite verbose for simple tasks and the code gets cluttered...

X object to the rescue!

.. code-block:: python

from pipetools import where, X

odd_sum = range | where(X % 2) | sum

How 'bout that.

Read more about the X object and it's limitations. 
_

.. _auto-string-formatting:

Automatic string formatting """""""""""""""""""""""""""

Since it doesn't make sense to compose functions with strings, when a pipe (or a

pipe-util 
) encounters a string, it attempts to use it for
(advanced) formatting
:

.. code-block:: pycon

>>> countdown = pipe | (range, 1) | reversed | foreach('{0}...') | ' '.join | '{0} boom'
>>> countdown(5)
u'4... 3... 2... 1... boom'

.. _(advanced) formatting: http://docs.python.org/library/string.html#formatstrings

Feeding the pipe """"""""""""""""

Sometimes it's useful to create a one-off pipe and immediately run some input through it. And since this is somewhat awkward (and not very readable, especially when the pipe spans multiple lines):

.. code-block:: python

result = (pipe | foo | bar | boo)(some_input)

It can also be done using the

>
operator:

.. code-block:: python

result = some_input > pipe | foo | bar | boo

.. note:: Note that the above method of input won't work if the input object defines

__gt__ 
_ for any object - including the pipe. This can be the case for example with some objects from math libraries such as NumPy. If you experience strange results try falling back to the standard way of passing input into a pipe.

But wait, there is more

See the

full documentation 
_.

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